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WEATHER MODIFICATION. - When most people look up they see clouds. WE SEE POTENTIAL-VEÐURFARSSTJÓRNUN.. Sagt frá hvernig og með hverju.Photos!




When most people look up they see clouds.







Weather Modification, Inc., has a wide range of services to provide knowledge, data, equipment and capability at any phase in your project. We can also tailor a program to meet your specific objectives and manage it from beginning to end.

Our talented scientists, researchers, project managers, technicians, and pilots have the expertise you need to carry out an efficient, effective weather program.

Feasibility Studies

Weather Modification, Inc., has been involved in multiple programs with the goal of identifying the potential benefits derived from the application of cloud seeding techniques. Our feasibility studies focus on the cloud structures and patterns in the project area. Gathered information assists in identifying the cloud seeding technology that's best suited for the project.

Systems Integration

Critical to the success of any major project is the integration of numerous, sometimes disparate, subsystems into a single, highly functional system. Weather Modification, Inc., excels at bringing these elements - radar, aircraft, scientific instrumentation, personnel and more - into a cohesive service offering.

Program Design

Based on a project assessment and/or previous work experiences, Weather Modification, Inc., can design a service offering that meets your objectives.

Program Management

Weather Modification, Inc., offers both on-site and remote program management for part or all of the services we provide. Examples range from overall program supervision to provision of radar systems, data observers, aircraft, pilots, mechanics and scientific analysis.

Technology Transfer

The technology transfer training program offered by Weather Modification, Inc., is helpful when starting a new program - or when upgrading an existing program. We are flexible, tailoring the training to fit the specific objectives of your program. Lectures are complemented with numerous hands-on examples to ensure maximum familiarity with equipment and procedures.

Our qualified, expert instructors usually conduct technology transfer training at the Weather Modification, Inc., corporate facilities. This allows optimum use of our facilities, aircraft, equipment and personnel, and provides a more cost-effective solution. We can also make accommodations to conduct training in remote locations

We work with many clients whether it is on a long-term basis or a short-term contract. Client requests are almost never the same - and we take pride in customizing our services to meet your specific needs.


Capturing the Sky's Knowledge

Our atmosphere supports virtually all life on the planet. Its gases allow respiration; its precipitation provides fresh water. Weather Modification, Inc., provides the tools to accurately and efficiently observe, measure, and monitor the atmospheric properties that govern how safely and efficiently these life-sustaining functions occur - we can apply these tools throughout the troposphere.

Our atmospheric assessment services provide a more complete understanding of local and regional atmospheric processes, a solid scientific basis, and a higher probability of success, for any cloud modification projects designed to increase precipitation, reduce hail or disperse fog.







We've developed an array of effective meteorological support services and a powerful selection of supplementary instrumentation. Our services are essential to climatology studies, precipitation enhancement and storm damage mitigation, fog dissipation, weather forecasting, and many other meteorological projects. 


Weather Forecasting

Our meteorologists regularly prepare project-specific weather forecasts for clients around the world. We structure our forecasts to your needs, which can be ready for your review at the same time each day, week, month or year. We specialize in forecasting for water resource management goals, but also support construction projects, industry, agriculture, environmental quality, and any specialized needs you may have.

 Climate Study and Data Analysis

We can analyze your existing meteorological data set - no matter what your requirements. Our team is experienced with all data from first-order weather stations: temperature, pressure, humidity, winds and precipitation. We can even take raw, third-party data and create a final report with valuable insight from our team of experts. 


Numerical Modeling

We can simulate atmospheric processes for a variety of purposes: to predict an occurrence beforehand or to replicate a past storm. Both can be very useful, and contribute to a more complete understanding of an atmospheric event.

More about Numerical Weather Modeling

Special Purpose Data Collection

Our weather stations and instrumentation can observe and record whatever data you need at your construction, industrial and agricultural sites. Our precipitation measurement instrumentation includes simple, accurate, manually read gauges to sophisticated, automated recording sensors.

More about instrumentation for special purpose weather data collection




Fresh water from rain or snow provides almost all water for human and animal consumption, including irrigation. While the formation of precipitation is reasonably well understood, the variations in the processes from cloud-to-cloud and locale-to-locale can be very significant. 

The specialized airborne instrumentation for in situ cloud measurement makes it possible to directly observe precipitation development:


For general atmospheric measurement and characterization:

  • Total temperature
  • Dew point
  • Pressure / pressure altitude
  • 3D winds
  • GPS position
  • Vertical acceleration

For the measurement of cloud hydrometeors:

  • Cloud liquid water content
  • Cloud droplets (sizes and numbers)
  • Cloud images (sizes, shapes, and numbers; 
    small particles)
  • Precipitation images (sizes, shapes, and 
    numbers, precipitation-sized particles)

  • In the Clouds

    The transformation of invisible atmospheric water vapor to visible water droplets and ice crystals is ,
     CCN) or the development of ice within a water cloud by ice-forming nuclei, IN)

    The most common forms of nuclei:

    (wind-borne dust)
    (sea spray)
    (ash, dust)
    (combustion of fossil fuels, dust)
    (smoke and ash)
    General pollution
    (from industry)

    These aerosols provide the various nuclei that govern cloud and precipitation development.

    The effects of human-made aerosols on natural precipitation and the potential for certain other human-made aerosols (cloud seeding) to favorably influence cloud processes. 
    Aerosol measurements reveals information critical to cloud and precipitation processes, including the quantification of cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei. 
    For the measurement of aerosols that function specifically as nuclei that affect cloud and precipitation processes, Weather Modification, Inc., recommends:

Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter

 Acoustic Ice Nucleus Counter (AINC)



Weather Modification, Inc., offers a variety of remote sensing solutions to measure  various atmospheric parameters from afar. 

 We offer C-band Doppler and polarimetric Doppler weather radar systems. View the specifications and capabilities of our state-of-the-scienceWeather Radar Systems for more information.

Atmospheric water, in vapor and liquid forms, can be readily measured by dual-channel microwave radiometers. Atmospheric sounding systems for the measurement of upper atmosphere temperature, humidity, and winds are also available. Learn more about either of these monitoring and sensing technologies in ourMeteorological Services section. 





Aerial cloud seeding is the process of delivering a seeding agent by aircraft - either at the cloud base or cloud top. Top seeding allows for direct injection of the seeding agent into the supercooled cloud top. Base seeding is the release of the seeding agent in the updraft of a cloud base.

Typically, aerial cloud seeding is the most effective way to accurately target a particular cloud because it  allows for close proximity to the potential cloud candidates.

Available Cloud Seeding Equipment 

Weather Modification, Inc. manufactures a variety of cloud seeding equipment. We complete FAA-approved installations of seeding equipment, emphasizing functionality, safety, reliability, and ease of use. Aerial cloud seeding equipment includes:

Selecting Aircraft for Aerial Cloud Seeding

The type of seeding method, whether it's cloud top seeding or cloud base seeding, and the type of measurements required often determine the model of aircraft used for the mission. Weather Modification, Inc. has several types of aircraft available with a wide range of capabilities and cabin capacities. We can also provide operation and maintenance expertise. 

Introduction of Seeding Agents


Water resources are increasingly taxed by exploding demand and continued population growth. The world's population is projected to grow over 40% in the next 45 years.

Weather modification, commonly known as cloud seeding, is the application of scientific technology that can enhance a cloud's ability to produce precipitation. Weather Modification, Inc., is on the forefront of scientific technology to maximize water availability worldwide. Application of scientific concepts and extensive scientific experimentation has proven that cloud seeding increases the amount of precipitation.

Cloud seeding useful in the following applications:

      Increasing Precipitation 

The most common application of cloud seeding is to increase precipitation, possible with both warm andcold clouds.   There are two primary methods employed to stimulate precipitation. One, hygroscopic seeding, affects warm cloud processes. The other,glaciogenic seeding, initiates cold cloud processes.

Though occasionally both techniques may be helpful, in most cases one can be utilized more effectively than the other. In addition, either technology can be applied from the surface (ground-based) or from an aircraft. Weather Modification, Inc. can help you decide which method will be most effective.  

Augmenting Snowfall

Glaciogenic seeding can also be used to increase precipitation from stratiform and orographic clouds. In such cases, seeding may be accomplished through either ground-based or airborne modes. By increasing snowpack and resultant spring runoff, subsequent water supplies for hydropower are increased. In addition to alleviating the need for alternative costly power supplies, cloud seeding increases the water availability for municipal, recreational, and environmental interests.

Enhancing Rainfall

Efforts to increase rainfall during the warm seasons are typically aimed at convective clouds. While it is theoretically possible to seed such clouds using ground-based equipment, targeting from aircraft is much more efficient and accurate. It is usually possible to affect the cloud through releases of a seeding agent in sub-cloud updrafts, or by dropping the seeding agents directly into the upper regions of the clouds.

Warm season glaciogenic seeding is typically applied to treat supercooled cumulus congestus clouds, either by releasing the ice-forming (nucleating) seeding agent in the updraft beneath the actively-growing cumulus, or by dropping the nucleating agent directly into the supercooled cloud top. The seeding agents can produce ice at significantly warmer temperatures than the natural process. This is how glaciogenic seeding gives the treated cloud a head start in producing precipitation.

When clouds do not grow tall and cold enough to produce precipitation through the Bergeron process, it may be possible to stimulate precipitation growth by seeding these warm clouds withhygroscopic seeding agents. This approach can be quite successful through stimulation of the warm cloud precipitation processes. Hygroscopic seeding is normally done from aircraft flying in the sub-cloud updrafts, in order to affect the initial cloud droplet development which occurs in this zone.


      Mitigating Hail Damage

Cloud seeding can be used as a tool to help mitigate hail damage and protect crop yields, homes and other property, thus reducing the economic harm from disastrous storm damage. Since hail is itself ice that is produced only by vigorous convective clouds, it is certain that such clouds are cold enough to be amenable to glaciogenic seeding techniques. Hail develops when excess supercooled liquid water develops within strong updrafts. However, if the excess might be induced to freeze into large numbers of small particles rather than much smaller numbers of large particles, the ice that does precipitate may melt during its transit through the warm sub-cloud layer, or if it doesn't it will reach the surface as much smaller, less-damaging, ice.


      Dispersing Fog   

Another useful application for cloud seeding is the treatment of ground-based clouds, also known as fog. Supercooled fogs, comprised of water droplets at temperatures cold enough to permit ice development, can easily be cleared by glaciogenic seeding. This can be done either from the ground or from airborne application. Your choice between the two will depend on characteristics such as local infrastructure, topography, and wind.



Enlist our team of cloud seeding experts.

Whether you are looking for a small operation or a full program, Weather Modification, Inc. can ensure your cloud seeding project runs smoothly. From Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved aircraft installations, configured for aerial cloud seeding and cloud physics, to ground-based seeding equipment and training, Weather Modification, Inc., has the equipment, experience and knowledge you need.





Weather Modification, Inc., has been modifying and operating aircraft for cloud seeding and atmospheric research operations since 1961. We maintain and operate a fleet of more than 35 twin-engine aircraft in various configurations that meet the needs of every client.

Weather Modification, Inc., uses several models of aircraft in our own operations, although we can adapt our equipment to virtually any type of aircraft for specific custome

 Beechcraft King Air





Aircraft Modification

If you operate your own aviation fleet, we can provide custom-modified aircraft to match your specific mission requirements - or we can modify your existing aircraft to perform the operations required.

Our talented team of experienced technicians facilitates the entire process - from design to modification to US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards certification. Weather Modification, Inc., can also perform any necessary maintenance required or upgrades requested by the client during the modification process.

Some of the modifications that we currently perform are:

  • VIP Transport
  • Photographic Equipment
  • Remote Sensing
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Telemetry
  • Atmospheric Chemistry
  • Cloud Physics Measurements
  • Air Ambulance
  • Cloud Seeding

Weather Modification, Inc. has acquired US FAA Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for select seeding equipment on the following aircraft:

  • Hawker 400
  • King Air 350, 200, and C90

The STC ensures that equipment is built and installed to the highest aviation standard for safety and performance.

Aircraft Sales and Leasing.

We can provide air and ground staff for a turnkey program

Unparalleled support from our maintenance and flight department assures smooth operation for your project

Support is available 24-hours a day, 7-days a week, around the globe

Let us locate, evaluate, and facilitate the purchase of a suitable aircraft for your needs. 


Solutions for the Ground

There are times when it's beneficial to seed from the ground. For example, ground seeding is an excellent option for the treatment of low-level clouds over complex terrain.

In some cases, seeding from fixed locations is acceptable; in others, mobility is needed.

Exclusive Ground Seeding Solutions from Weather Modification, Inc.

Weather Modification, Inc., offers specially designed and manufactured solutions to meet the specific challenges of ground-based cloud seeding. Both incorporate the latest in ground-based pyrotechnic applications, and are self-contained. When controlled via satellite, they can be sited virtually anywhere. When weather at the seeding location is critical, complete meteorological stations can be co-located with both fixed and mobile ground-based units:

Ground-Based Seeding Generator

There are two types of ground-based generators:

Remote Controlled Ground-Based Generators and Manual Ground-Based Generators. These solution-burning ice nuclei generators are most often used to seed orographic clouds in areas of rugged topography.

Remote Controlled Ground-Based Seeding GeneratorsThe remote system utilizes a communication link, such as Iridium. The method of communication is determined by the location, and the data link is integrated with the microprocessor for complete remote control.

A centrally located computer provides real-time control of the system, including access to system status and weather station data. This rugged system is designed to withstand the extremes of any storm system that may pass over the site. They are constructed to function even in extreme rime icing and operate under the most demanding of weather conditions.

Manual Ground-Based Seeding GeneratorsThe manual system is similar to the remote system, except there is no need for communication link, microprocessor or weather data collection equipment. The relatively simple task of operating the valves and switches is performed onsite

Ground-Based Flare Tree

Cost-effective, simple to maintain and easy to install, the ground-based flare tree, or GBFT, comes in two versions to accommodate different flare types: glaciogenic (108 flares) and hygroscopic (60 flares). All designs offer remote, real-time control of the system, utilizing cellular/satellite technology in conjunction with microprocessor technology.

A single, user-friendly graphical user interface enables communication with all of your GBFTs � and provides additional useful features:

  • Locally save detailed logs
  • Receive and monitor real-time status
  • Gain fully automated system control of the system
  • On the Radar
  • Weather Modification, Inc. not only sells and services C-band,X-band, and S-band weather radar systems to clients around the world; we incorporate them into our own cloud seeding projects. Ranging from smaller mobile radar systems, to polarimetric Doppler research quality systems, we can meet radar needs for a wide range of customers.

    Weather Radar Systems are a versatile tool for atmospheric assessment, with uses that include:

    • Rainfall estimates
    • Real-time cloud detection
    • Speed and direction of cell motion
    • Identifying precipitation location and intensity

    New Single and Dual Polarized Radar Systems

    Weather Modification, Inc., owns, operates, and sells new single pol and dual pol radar systems that utilize a solid state transmitters, digital receivers and antenna control systems. Configurable display software allows a wide variety of user-defined product display and analysis features.

    Available antenna diameters include 3.5 meters, 4.2 meters, and 4.5 meters. Also available are new fiberglass radomes.

    Refurbished Radar Systems

    C-band weather radar systems with state of the art transmitter and receiver upgrades. TITAN display and analysis software are available for sale or lease. These systems come with an 8-foot antenna dish and a 12-foot fiberglass radome, and can be installed with a tower, or as a mobile unit.

    Upgrade Services

    We provide transmitter, receiver and antenna upgrades to nearly any type of C-band weather radar. After an assessment of your existing radar, we can recommend upgrades that allow the most modern equipment for reliability and superior data quality.

Unmatched Expertise, Exceptional Equipment

Whether you need to document the character of clouds or variations in visibility, we have the knowledge you require, the instrumentation you need and the means to deploy it.

Weather Modification, Inc., conducts atmospheric environmental monitoring programs of any scale. We are well-known for airborne measurements but we offer ground-based systems as well.

Measuring aerosols, visibility and

cloud formation

For the measurement of aerosols, visibility and cloud formation, we have:

  • Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probes
  • Condensation and Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counters
  • Ice Nucleus Counters

Trace gas detection

We also provide sensors to detect a variety of atmospheric trace gases important to environmental quality, including ozone (O3), carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfurous and nitrous oxides (SOx, NOx).


Transportation and dispersion of 


To document the movement and dispersion of aerosols in the atmosphere, we offer tracer technologies that enable you to release and track a variety of materials to considerable distances downwind. If the terrain is complex, we can provide numerical models to gain understanding of locally specific transport and dispersion.


Worldwide Success

The proven success of Weather Modification, Inc., in atmospheric and weather operations is evident by our lengthy and impressive client listing speaks for itself. Our reputation for successful cloud seeding and meteorological services leads our veteran pilots, experienced meteorologists and radar engineers around the world. Our valued clients include private and public insurance companies, water resource management organizations, as well as federal and state government research organizations.

Explore the map below to view projects

Clients & Projects
AntiguaAntigua Cloud Seeding Project
ArgentinaProvince of Mendoza Ministry of Economy
AustraliaQueensland Environmental Protection Agency
Burkina FasoProgram SAAGA
CanadaAlberta Hail Suppression Project
 British Colombia Ministry of Forest
 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority
 Saskatchewan National Hydrology Research Agency
GreeceGreek National Hail Suppression Program (ELGA)
 Hellenic Navy Supply Center
IndiaAndhra Pradesh Rainfall Enhancement Project
 Prakalpa Varsha - Maharashtra Rainfall Enhancement Project
 Project Varuna - Karnataka Rainfall Enhancement Project
IndonesiaBPPT Weather Modification Program
JordanArab Automated Systems
 Heshamite Kingdom of Jordan
MaliProgramme Sanji - Mali
MexicoPrecipitation for Augmentation of Rain in Coahuila (PARC)
MoroccoProgramme Al-Ghait
Saudi ArabiaProgram for Cloud Physics Research and Rain Enhancement in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 World Meteorological Organization in cooperation with SAU/WMO/FIT Rain Enhancement Project
SpainCanary Islands - AIRAO Incorporated
ThailandBureau of Royal Rainmaking and Agricultural Aviation (BRRAA)
TurkeyISKI Rain Enhancement Program
 Petkim Petrokimya Holding, A.S. Rain Enhancement Program
United Arab EmiratesU.A.E. Rain Enhancement Program
 U.A.E. Rainfall Enhancement and Air Chemistry Studies - DWRS
United StatesAeromet, Inc. (L-3 Communications) - U.S Department of Defense
 BAMEX - Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex Experiment
 CALIPSO - CloudSat Validation Experiment
 Delaware Department of Agriculture Cloud Seeding Program
 Edwards Aquifer Authority
 Federal Aviation Administration - Great Lakes Division
 Gratiot Weather Modification Project
 Illinois Weather Modification Projects
 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - National Hurricane Center
 Naval Surface Warfare Center
 Nevada State Cloud Seeding Program
 New Mexico BLAST (Burst Light and Stratus Transmission) Project
 North Dakota Cloud Modification Project (NDCMP)
 North Dakota Thunderstorm Project - North Dakota Atmospheric Resource Board
 North Dakota Tracer Experiment - North Dakota Atmospheric Resource Board
 Northeast Sampling Program - Sonoma Technology, Inc.
 NSF/NCAR ICE-L Field Campaign
 Oklahoma Weather Modification Project (OWMP)
 Panhandle Groundwater Conservation District Rainfall Enhancement Program
 Santa Barbara County Water Agency
 Sonoma Technology, Inc.
 Stanislaus Weather Modification Program
 State of South Dakota - Department of Natural Resources Division of Weather Modification
 Texas Central High Plains Rainfall Enhancement Program
 Texas Experiment in Augmenting Rainfall through Cloud Seeding (TEXARC)
 Texas Weather Modification Program
 The University of North Dakota - US Environmental Protection Agency
 University of Arizona - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
 Upper American River Cloud Seeding Project
 Upper Payette River Basin Cloud Seeding Program
 Upper Tuolumne River Weather Modification Program
 Utah Division of Water Resources
 Utah Division of Water Resources
 West Central Texas Council of Governments Rainfall Enhancement Program
 Western Dakota Water Development District - Black Hills Council of Local Government
 Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Program


Learn More


Learn more about new developments, the science behind weather modification, and related issues.

Other Meteorological Organizations


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